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Maureen Sullivan-Tevault
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Maureen has over 25 years in Emergency and Trauma nursing, including nursing positions as the Emergency Department Manager, Director of Staff Education, Trauma Coordinator, and Stroke Program Manager.


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Diabetes: An Introduction

An online continuing education course for nurses, medical health care professionals, and other interested individuals.

Diabetes (also known as Diabetes Mellitus) is a chronic disease state, in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or the body does not effectively utilize the insulin being produced. The result of such events is that an increased amount of glucose remains in the bloodstream. This is known as hyperglycemia. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia can lead to numerous medical conditions, and, in extreme cases, can be life-threatening. Prompt, early treatment is the best way to control the disease process and reduce the occurrence of associated complications.
According to the National Diabetes Fact Sheet (available through the American Diabetes Association), as of January 2011, there were 25.8 million children and adults in the United States with diabetes. Of that number, 18.8 million people were diagnosed, with an estimated 7.0 million people undiagnosed (yet diagnosed) with the chronic disease. Additionally, approximately, 79 million people were thought to be pre-diabetic.

The costs of diabetes, in the United States, are overwhelming. In 2007, total costs of (diagnosed) diabetes care in the United States, was $174 billion dollars. This number represents both direct medical costs, as well as indirect costs for such things as work loss, disability, and premature mortality). It has been estimated that the average medical expenditures for persons with diabetes is 2.3 times higher than that of a non-diabetic person. Factoring in the additional costs of care for undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes, and gestational diabetes (diabetes occurring during a pregnancy), the annual costs of caring for diabetes in the United States is estimated to be nearly $218 billion dollars. Diabetes is an equal opportunity” disease, affecting both men and women, of all ages from infants to elders, and also affects all nationalities. In the United States, diabetes is ranked as the 7th leading cause of death. If current patterns continue, it was estimated that one in three American children born in the year 2000 will develop diabetes. Thus, it is critical for the health and welfare of our nation that we begin to understand the disease of diabetes, its implications, and what we can do to lower our risk of the disease and its associated complications.

The goal of this Continuing Education program is to educate all levels of providers on the chronic disease process known as diabetes, and to empower them to recognize their own personal risk factors. The program will discuss lifestyle changes, as well as overview medications available to treat diabetes. Additionally, the program will discuss medication conditions associated with diabetes, their treatment goals, and proper patient education. Finally, the program is written to enhance the practice of healthcare providers in all areas of practice, from acute care settings to long term care facilities. Specific guidelines will be outlined for the care of a diabetic patient in a variety of clinical settings.


Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

  1. Differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
  2. Explain the pathogenesis of diabetes
  3. Verbalize criteria used to diagnose diabetes
  4. Discuss the management of diabetes
  5. Identify potential complications of diabetes
  6. Verbalize the worldwide impact of diabetes on the economy
  7. Identify the criteria used to diagnose pre-diabetes
  8. Identify the criteria used to diagnose metabolic syndrome
  9. Identify the criteria used to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
  10. Identify the criteria used to diagnose a hyperosmolar,hyperglycemic, nonketosis state (HHNK)
  11. Verbalize risk factors for the development of diabetes
  12. Verbalize lifestyle changes to reduce/prevent diabetes
  13. Discuss the Diabetes Prevention Program components
  14. Discuss (uncontrolled) diabetic related complications
  15. Explain the different types of oral hypoglycemic medication
  16. Explain the different types of insulin medication
  17. Discuss care of multiple diabetic patients in long term care facilities
  18. Review principles of the Sliding Scale insulin administration
  19. Discuss glucometer usage and troubleshooting techniques
  20. Verbalize the 504 plan in relationship to school aged children with diabetes
  21. Discuss CMS and Joint Commission (HAC and certification)
  22. Explain the link between Diabetes and Viral Hepatitis in Long Term Care facilities
  23. Diabetic patient care safety issues-insulin storage, bottle labeling, and hand washing


Chapter 1 Introduction to Diabetes

  • Anatomy and physiology of diabetes
  • Pathology and pathogenesis of diabetes
Chapter 2 Pre-Diabetes
  • Pre-diabetes definition
  • A1C versus eAG
  • Diabetes Prevention Program
Chapter 3 Metabolic Syndrome
  • Metabolic Syndrome definition
  • Diagnostic criteria, risk factors, prevention efforts
Chapter 4 Overview of Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Beta cell destruction and lifetime insulin therapy
Chapter 5 Overview of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Lifestyle changes, risk factors, methods of prevention, and treatment options
Chapter 6 Overview of Gestational Diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Diagnostic criteria
  • Risk factors
Chapter 7 MODY and LADA
  • MODY (maturity onset of diabetes in youth)
  • LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults)
Chapter 8 Diabetes and Sick Day Management
  • Sick Day Management guidelines
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
  • Hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic nonketosis (HHNK)
Chapter 9 Diabetes Patient Education
  • Diabetic complications: foot care
  • Patient education regarding complications (risk reduction and prevention)
Chapter 10 Oral Hypoglycemic Agents
Oral Diabetic Medications
  • Meglitinides
  • Sulfonylureas
  • Dipeptidy Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors
  • Biguanides
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Injectable Medications (Excluding Insulin)
  • Amylin mimetics
  • Incretin mimetics (also known as GLP-1 Receptor Agonists) 

Overview of Hypoglycemia

Chapter 11 Introduction to Insulin
  • Insulin-types of
  • Sliding scale insulin administration
  • Insulin injection site rotation
Chapter 12 Unique Blood Sugar Phenomenon
  • Dawn phenomena
  • Somogyi effect
Chapter 13 Diabetes and School Age Children
  • School age children with diabetes & the 504 plan
  • The School Bill of Rights for Children with Diabetes
Chapter 14 Acute Care Facility of Diabetes
  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and Joint Commission-Diabetes specific issues  
  • Non-reimbursement of Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC)
Chapter 15 Long Term Care Facilities and Diabetes
  • Diabetes and Viral Hepatitis in Long Term Care facilities
  • Proper handling and dispensing of medications
  • Proper hand washing techniques
  • Proper storage of diabetic testing supplies

Course Snapshot

Cost: $ 35.00
Contact Hours: 3.5


After successful completion the licensed nurse: RN, LPN/LVN will receive 3.5 contact hours. Provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider # CEP 15467

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